BA.4 increases with optimism

(and BA.5) UK, infections increasing

Uptick in Covid hospital admissions in England

33% on the week

Increases will continue for weeks (2 or 3)

Caused by omicron sub-variants, BA.4 and BA.5

Spreading more readily than BA.2

Office for National Statistics

Early signs of a possible increase in COVID-19 infections in England and Northern Ireland

Omicron BA.4 and BA.5, in the ascendancy

Taken over from Omicron BA.2

Taken over from Omicron BA.1

Taken over from Delta

Taken over from Alpha

Taken over from Wuhan original strain

Omicron wave hospital patients

19% caught the virus in hospital,

BA.4 and BA.5 variants emerged in South Africa

Both evade immunity from vaccination or infection

UK crossover point, (BA.4 and BA.5 over half of cases) Jubilee weekend (2nd to 4th June)

South Africa

BA.4 and BA.5 variants had already swept through South Africa, no major problems

Despite multiple reinfections,

Deaths in South Africa were only around a tenth of the peak during previous waves

Previous immunity has not protected against BA.4 and BA.5 infections

Reinfections will increase immunity

Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections as Compared with Primary Infections

December 2021

Qatar national cohort of 353,326

N = 1,304 reinfections

Reinfections were rare and were generally mild

(Risk of re-infection, x8 in omicron times compared to delta times)

Reinfections had 90% lower odds of resulting in hospitalization or death than primary infections.

US data

Written by Dr. John Campbell

Hello Everyone,My name is John Campbell and I am a retired Nurse Teacher and A and E nurse based in England. I also do some teaching in Asia and Africa when time permits. These videos are to help students to learn the background to all forms of health care. My PhD focused on the development of open learning resources for nurses nationally and internationally.


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  1. In the Guardian today Dr Campbell there is concern that the BA4 and 5 variants "new data suggests these variants may have evolved to refavour infecting lung tissue, which could make them more dangerous." What do you think?

  2. Was reading some local news and thought this comment good……."The PM. got COVID-19 before being vaccinated. Now he is vaccinated and boosted and is flying
    around the world and across the country and has had covid-19 two more times and the last was after
    flying to the Americas Conference. All those people are supposed to be vaccinated, and coming back
    home. It seems that he slipped through a check point, so that shows they do not work. With that, all
    federal mandates should be dropped.If at some point a real emergency does come along then maybe
    they can suggest travel restrictions only if they follow them also. Oh yea how much carbon did they
    make flying around? Should of had a ZOOM conference."……vaxed or unvaxed you must have questions?

  3. Don't believe a word this man tells u park outside a hostipal or walk down the street and you'll see the disabled from covid he's a liar and paid for it

  4. Just like silicon valley executives protecting their own young kids from the dangers of technology, I'd wager money big pharma executives are not jabbing their own kids and grandkids. It's unforgivable greed. Kids are in far more danger from junk food!

  5. Hi there — I like the green ink you use. I just bought a couple of fountain pens. What is the ink? Thanks for all you do – I rely on your reports for education and information. Take care.

  6. What percent of thes new infections are vaccinated?
    The way the data is presented, it seem that the up tick is due to niave COVID person. What % of the deaths are persons who have been vaccinated?

  7. So the "unnamed virus of unknown origin" is (just as the CTs have been saying for over a year) mutating into another common cold virus, hmmm… isn't that something.

  8. BA.5 is back to wrecking havoc in the lungs. Hospital admissions up 33% werk on week and DEATHS UP 8%. That’s faster on both counts from BA.2

  9. My husband and I have been absolutely miserable with it. He tested positive Friday and me Sunday. This is really rough. It's not just a cold or flu feeling as some say. 😪 He works in the burial vault, cremation industry, and sadly this is the only time he's been off work in what feels like years.

  10. Is it possible to have Covid and test negative on a RAT or LFT? Last March, four days after my first vaccine, I started to feel ill, hot and cold and off my food etc, felt like my legs were like Jelly and even a PCR turned up negative – assuming I did the test correctly – then the dreaded cough started, for five weeks I had this god awful cough, chest x-ray clear – fast forward to this March (Gone) I'd been to my Cousins house, that night I started with a sore throat which lasted a day or so, runny nose and then congestion – loss of smell but taste not so much – head felt like I was under water for a week, mild cough – again on RAT and LFT tested negative, although I was convinced I saw a very faint line on the T which then disappeared – unsure whether I've had Covid or not, or just been two very heavy head colds, either way they're head colds I've not experienced before. I'm partially vaccinated – ie just had the one due to my first experience.

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  12. This ass of a man never talks about autoimmune disorder this virus causes…never talk about depleting t cells….never talks about liver or kidney failures this virus causes…never talks about micro cloths in the vascular system…all he likes to advocate is what the government wants you to know and hear.

  13. So from reading the description I've gathered this strain yet again evades vaccine immunity….causes low rates of death or serious illness…. Immunity levels gained from infection 🤔 starting to see the pattern …

  14. I think they keep getting detected in South Africa because I believe there is a lot of investment into this type of research with very diligent people, which is odd because I would assume they could be paid more elsewhere but I'm glad we have them.
    Writing this with covid as we speak, wish me luck!

  15. My father currently has Covid and congested, coughing and sore throat. He is 79. I have multiple Myeloma and kidney failure and have been around him and not gotten covid. My mom, nephew and his son live there and neither have caught covid…just my dad. You would think with my immune system being compromised I would have for sure got it. Plus I'm on chemotherapy.

  16. The Guardian ran an article today suggesting that BA4 and 5 were 'refavouring' the infection of the lower respiratory tract.
    Where are we with monkey pox now.

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