BA.5 causes more severe disease

UK infections continue upwards

Reinfections now common

Generally, infections tend to milder the second or third time round

Danny Altmann, professor of immunology, Imperial College London

Omicron is poorly immunogenic, which means that catching it offers little extra protection against catching it again

Prof Tim Spector

There are definitely a lot of people who got Covid at the start of the year who are getting it again,

including some with BA.4/5 who had BA.1/2 just four months ago

rare to be reinfected with within three months

BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 escape antibodies elicited by Omicron infection

New sub-variants notably evade the neutralising antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination

Vaccine boosters based on the BA.1 virus

(e.g. those developed by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna)

may not achieve broad-spectrum protection against new Omicron variants

Dr. Onyema Ogbuagu, Yale School of Medicine, Connecticut

My personal bias is that while there may be some advantage to having an Omicron-specific vaccine,

I think it will be of marginal benefit over staying current with the existing vaccines and boosters

Despite immune evasion, the expectation can be that vaccines will still protect against serious disease

What we’ve learned clinically is that it’s most important to stay up-to-date with vaccines

to maintain high levels of COVID-19 antibodies circulating in the blood

Kei Sato, University of Tokyo

New sub-variants may have evolved to refavour infection of lung cells

Risk is potentially greater than that of original BA.2

Dr Stephen Griffin, University of Leeds

It looks as though these things are switching back to the more dangerous form of infection, so going lower down in the lung

Neutralization Escape by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Subvariants BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5

Subvariants BA.1 and BA.2, substantial escape from neutralizing antibodies

Subvariants BA.4 and BA.5 have identical sequences of spike protein

Comparison of neutralizing antibody titer WA1/2020 isolate with BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4 or BA.5

Isolate USA-WA1/2020 from an oropharyngeal swab,

returned from China,

who and developed clinical disease,

January 2020 in Washington, USA

In 27 participants, all vaccinated and boosted with Pfizer,

And 27 participants who had been infected with the BA.1 or BA.2 median 29 days earlier (range, 2 to 113 days)

In the vaccine cohort

Participants were excluded,

if they had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection,

or a positive result on nucleocapsid serologic analysis,

or if they had received another covid vaccine,

or an immunosuppressive medication

Six months after the initial two BNT162b2 immunizations

Neutralizing antibody titer against WA1/2020 = 124

Neutralizing antibody titer against omicron subvarients = 20

Two weeks after administration of the booster dose

Neutralizing antibody titer against WA1/2020 = 5,783

Neutralizing antibody titer against BA.1 = 900

BA.2 = 892

BA.2.12.1 = 410

BA.4 or BA.5 = 275 (21 times lower than 5,783)

What about natural immunity

Among the participants who had been infected with BA.1 or BA.2,

26 had been vaccinated

Median neutralizing antibody titer

WA1/2020 isolate = 11,050

BA.1 = 1,740

BA.2 = 1,910

BA.2.12.1 = 1,150

BA.4 or BA.5 = 590 (18.7 times less than 11,050)

These data show that the BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5 subvariants substantially escape neutralizing antibodies induced by both vaccination and infection.

SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant has continued to evolve with increasing neutralization escape.

These findings provide immunologic context for the current surges caused by the BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5 subvariants,

in populations with high frequencies of vaccination and BA.1 or BA.2 infection.

Written by Dr. John Campbell

Hello Everyone,My name is John Campbell and I am a retired Nurse Teacher and A and E nurse based in England. I also do some teaching in Asia and Africa when time permits. These videos are to help students to learn the background to all forms of health care. My PhD focused on the development of open learning resources for nurses nationally and internationally.


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  1. The issue here seems obvious. The vaccine is for the original and shouldn't be that effective against the well evolved variants at this point.

    My question is why aren't we seeing updated vaccines to target the evolved variants? This was something that all of the vaccine companies said they could turn around in six months yet here we are with no omicron targeting vaccines. Why? Where is the reporting on that?

  2. Covid is a Titanic of immunizations: countries indebted with pharma, almost no protection, sinking credibility for all vaccines. Maybe NOW people will begin to hear scientists like Robert Malone.

  3. more severe on "protected" people everyone else just gets a quick sneeze and continue life; if they are allowed to by the Hunger Games inspired governments.

  4. If BA.4 and .5 seem to affect the lower part of the lungs etc., I wouldn't 'encourage' natural infection. I would stay away from it (that is, from people especially in indoor places) as much as I can.
    Also, the more often one is reinfected, the more likely adverse effects can occur such as Alzheimer and Long Covid.

  5. Such a shame we couldn't see data reflecting natural immunity vs hybrid immunity!
    Hopefully there will be a study in the future to fill this gap. Based on the available data, I can't help but think the median neutralizing antibody titers of natural immunity only patients would be higher again – though to what extent nobody can be certain!

  6. Mass vaccination with a non-sterilizing vaccine during a pandemic will only result in more virulent and more infectious immune escape variants and will never achieve herd immunity. (Paraphrased Dr Geert Vanden bossche)….. the vaccinated should be very very concerned

  7. For the last several months Gert Vanden Bossche Has been discussing the risks of a more virulent Subtype being pushed into an existence by our widespread use of narrow,weak vaccines. The hallmark of this will be that those who have had naturally acquired immunity will be minimally inconvenienced but those who have relied on vaccine first immunity will be at higher risk for severe disease. This variant my be the first step in that progression.

  8. its all been a can job and the vaxx s are causing this they were nothing more than avaxx trial and the tests they are using are set too high that why a load of drs and lawyers filed for nuremburg trials which we are waiting on happening

  9. people getting infected are vaccinated right. and they keep getting it over and over. i wonder why? did anyone predict this kind of immune escape? whats happening to peoples immune systems that they arent developing natural immunity? what does vaccine do to innate natural immune system i wonder?

  10. How does this man get away with putting out misinformation and spreading fear is beyond my earthly belief. For Youtube to allow this is complicit to his misinformation. His sources where perceived as creditable are wrong. So who does this man work for? No clue but as the piped piper he has a lot of people BS'ed.

  11. I know a lot of people here in Toronto that have been super super careful and haven't been infected yet. Honestly, I'm kind of worried about them. I've had Covid 3 times now, I have a ton of natural immunity, they do not.

  12. If the vaccines are providing immune escape, wouldn’t the natural immune system kick in if a variant got past the vaccine immune response? Wouldn’t we all have both natural/vaccine immunity if we had symptomatic covid while vaccinated? I am also wondering what happened to the evolution of the virus as far as symptomatic and asymptomatic infection? Did asymptomatic infection drop out ? I don’t hear much about it

  13. I would like to have data of reinfections among vaccinated vs non-vaccinated. In my surounding it seems to be all the vaccinated people that get reinfected for the second or third time. This is not science ofcourse so I would like to get some hard data.

  14. Everyone getting sick I can’t associate with this at all I didn’t take the non vaccine experiment 🧪 by crazy propaganda and coercion! I had my nightmare in 76 swine flu vaccine coercion already how ignorant I was !

  15. So far I have had all, and I have had several PCR COVID 19-22' tests and have received all non-detected results. NEGATIVE results. Psalm 91 X 91 Psalms 🙏🏽🎂🙌🏾 iHealth home test were all negative as well and I self tested many times over and over… To be continued. I am boosted twice and fully vaccinated af🙏🏽

  16. This is just another propaganda made by you know WHO, to get more vaccines into people, and just as the summer holidays are to kick in here in the UK, sorry but not taking part in this anymore.

  17. sooo you're saying Geert Van Den Bosshe was RIGHT. non-neutralizing vaccine will select for the more infectious variants…

    Risk of ADE still exists, OAS is clearly evident now.

  18. New releases of C19 Vax according to the FDA, will not be required to go through trials before release to use on the public. Meaning moving forward that the people will be the lab rats for all new vaxxes. Unknown if that will be the same for new medications as well. Heaven help us with the likes of Tedros and Bill Gates calling the shots, through WHO.

  19. Yes it causes because of Immunodeficiencies caused you know by what! You are seeing and will see the emergence of all kind of diseases and viruses unknown to human body just before you know what.

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