Natural immunity protects

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Does natural and hybrid immunity obviate the need for frequent vaccine boosters against SARS-CoV-2 in the endemic phase?

Stefan Pilz John PA Ioannidis

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has entered its endemic phase

We observe significantly declining infection fatality rates due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


It is crucial but challenging to define current and future vaccine policy,

in a population with a high immunity against SARS-CoV-2,

conferred by previous infections and/or vaccinations.

Vaccine policy must consider the magnitude of the risks conferred by new infection(s),

with current and evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants,

how these risks vary in different groups of individuals,

how to balance these risks against the apparently small, but existent, risks of harms of vaccination,
and the cost-benefit of different options.

More evidence from randomized controlled trials,

and continuously accumulating national health data is required,

to inform shared decision-making with people who consider vaccination options.

Vaccine policy makers should cautiously weight what vaccination schedules are needed,

and refrain from urging frequent vaccine boosters unless supported by sufficient evidence.

The key issue

Whether and how to consider natural immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infections, and hybrid immunity

It is very likely that the large majority of the global population has been infected with SARS-CoV-2,

at least once by late 2022

(Excluding China)

People who have never been infected have probably become a rarity.

It is well established that previous SARS- CoV-2 infections induce a significant and long-lasting protection against reinfections,

and even more so against severe COVID-19.3-6

Lets check the evidence

Risk of reinfection and disease after SARS-CoV-2 primary infection: Meta-analysis

91 studies, n = 15,034,624

Infections n = 158,478 reinfections

During the first 3 months of Omicron wave,

the reinfection rates reached 3.31%.

Overall rates of severe/lethal COVID-19 were very low,

(2-7 per 10,000),

and were not affected by strain predominance.


A strong natural immunity follows the primary infection and may last for more than one year,

suggesting that the risk and health care needs of recovered subjects might be limited.

Although the reinfection rates considerably increased during the Omicron wave,

the risk of a secondary severe or lethal disease remained very low.

The risk-benefit profile of multiple vaccine doses for this subset of population needs to be carefully evaluated.

Back to Pilz, PA loannidis paper

Compared to vaccination by two doses,

natural immunity was associated with a significantly higher protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections before the emergence of Omicron,

when identical times have elapsed since the last immune conferring event.


Little viral spread until late 2021,

and then massive infections with Omicron,

ensued in a population that had been widely vaccinated.

Omicron infection fatality rate (IFR) until mid-March 2022,

6.2 per 100,000 infections,

among apparently healthy people 17-72 years

Compared to previous infection waves in Denmark, there was a very significant decline in IFR
Omicron wave
In populations with substantial prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2,
re-infections, less than a quarter of the hospitalization risk,
and one-tenth the mortality
Vojvodina, Serbia
1% of re-infections required hospitalization
Case fatality for re-infections was 0.15%
Accounting for non- ascertained infections,
this suggests that IFR for re-infections,
may be less than 0.05%, (even in people who have not been vaccinated)

Written by Dr. John Campbell

Hello Everyone,My name is John Campbell and I am a retired Nurse Teacher and A and E nurse based in England. I also do some teaching in Asia and Africa when time permits. These videos are to help students to learn the background to all forms of health care. My PhD focused on the development of open learning resources for nurses nationally and internationally.


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  1. My un-scientific opinion is that masking is the most effective defense against airborne diseases like Covid. A good mask regimen lets just enough virus through to inoculate, but not enough to cause disease. Your natural immune system can handle Covid, just not in the strength that an unmasked exposure would produce. The mask slows it down enough for immune system to deal with with it. Vaccines are useful, but have their own risks.

  2. People have known natural immunity works to stop infection for centuries. These criminals at the CDC and other nations took money from big pharma to push the injection and gaslighted people about natural immunity by claiming it didn't stop infection or wasn't as effective without the injection. They wanted people to take the injection because it destroys your immune system. They as in the globalists such as Klaus Schwab and his World Economic Forum conspirators.

  3. When the government trying to scare you by cleaning public areas with overdosed chemicals, they know well natural immunity can protect you but they also know we are not immune from chemicals…

  4. Repeated reinfection with Covid-19 has also been shown to often cause lasting damage to multiple bodily and organ systems (including the circulatory and cardiovascular systems, significantly increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke), as well as cognitive impairment. It's not a disease one should risk contracting even a single time, let alone multiple times, and, in the U.S., 2,000 people are still losing their lives to Covid-19 each week, a number that has remained constant since the spring of 2022. Campbell knows all of this, but, for whatever reason, isn't telling in this video.

  5. Follow the money is another one to remember. Evidence is nice, but when institutions are corrupted like they are right now, following the money is more informative.

  6. Who cares about the evidence when it comes to buckets of money. When I was seriously injured by my GP years ago it opened my mind to a whole new world. 🇦🇺😩 who thought going to a GP can be the most dangerous thing you can ever do. I question and research everything. I’ve helped so many family members to recognise side affects and to take them seriously even if your GP says “it’s not the tablets” “ can’t be”! Ok Doc pull the other one !

  7. The Swine Flu pandemic of 2009 seems to have been forgotten,.
    This was the template they tried to use to do what we have recently been subjected to.
    Natural immunity still seems to be functioning now 13 years later.
    The establishment are just lying bastards.
    3 million years of evolution is not realm something that can be bettered by a medical intervention knocked up over the kitchen sink in a few weeks.

    We now have almost six times the number of excess deaths per week than in the “ Pandemic “, there is no national immunity to an unnatural artificial intervention.

  8. You have been gaslighted all of your life by big pharma and big food. No man-made chemical can be safely put into your BIOLOGICAL body. Only natural food/medicine will benefit your body. High glucose is causing all modern diseases and lowers immune response.

  9. I’m not vaccinated and I’ve never had covid. I look after my immune system. The last time I was sick with flu like symptoms was in 2018 after a month heavily medicated. I’d not been eating properly so my immune system wasn’t great at the time. I should still be taking medication but chose not to. My sister has rheumatoid arthritis and was told that illness can take 15 years off her life. When she looked into it , it’s the medication that takes 15 years off your life so she stopped taking these poisonous chemicals. If possible use natural remedies. My sister arthritis has got so much better since she stopped these medicines. Big pharma wants your money now and want you dead asap. I worked in a pharmacy so I have a bit of insight 🤷🏻‍♀️

  10. WEF and WHO are criminal operations worse than the worst Mafia run crime syndicates imaginable; at least the Mafia could never envision taking control of the personal lives and freedoms of every single person living on the planet.

  11. SARS -COV 1 NATURAL IMMUNITY is still present 19 years later .
    There was minimal vaccinations.
    Natural immunity is a threat to the political agenda and big buck pharmaceutical interest.

  12. Thank you Dr. Campbell for another insightful discussion. I have no known infection of any sort, rarely wore mask unless required (after 7/2020), never hesitate to go shopping or be around people. In fact I’m a (older – age 59yrs) soldier in my states defense force so regularly around people. I fully expected to get the virus at some point but haven’t. Have not received experimental treatment. Believe in doing appropriate steps to maintain immune system.

    For what it’s worth to anyone.

  13. Individualized care? There was an attempt to get statins into US drinking water because 'even kids' benefit. By the way, there are studies showing elderly with slightly elevated blood pressure fare better in mortality risk than normal readings.

  14. A year or two back, I found a paper suggesting infection by the original SARS virus conferred twelve to fifteen years of coronavirus protection. The authors saw no reason not to expect the same from SARS-II but of course we were in the middle of the rollout & no-one wanted to hear it. As time has gone on it has become more & more apparent that the novel interventions are far, far, far less effective at preventing transmission, infection, illness and even hospitalistion & death & that natural immunity is far, far, far more preferable.
    Yet still they push the boosters.

  15. They threw a century’s worth of science & medicine out the window and were willing to sacrifice it in order to get these genetic therapy injections into us EN MASSE. And what a coordinated effort between Governments, Medical Industry Big Wigs, Mainstream Media, Bill Gates, Big Tech! Thank you Dr Campbell for doing your best to fill this space with some honest Truth. Dont you stop sir!

  16. most my life a once a year common cold but as I get older it started skipping a year and then 2 3 ,,4 up till now the last time I got sick was when swine flu was everywhere and it gave me the worst I've ever felt from sickness but nothing 0% sick from this recent thing and I'm 110% honest last time I was sick was swine flu roughly 10 years ago ,,,and I've kept pretty much same vegan vegetarian diet ,,,,now here is what will shock people I smoke a pack of cigarettes a day I drink alcohol and in some technical terms I shouldn't exist right now because I've never had any shots and have been exposed every year to everything because construction work requires envolvment with people and many bacterial things with remodeling kitchens and bathrooms ,,,I'm not going to list my entire exact diet but from years of research and listening to other opinions,,,is making this very confusing because on 1 side is technical biology and medical diagnosis,,,and yes many people around me were told they had it ,,,I didn't get anything no symptoms no nothing and my diet is definitely different than most people and I've practiced fasting most my life so ,,,it doesn't make any sense why or how or all the questions and I have no answer ,,,I don't take vitamins I drink sodas 80 + percent of the time I have 5 abscessed teeth due to leaving wisdom teeth that were bad too long in my mouth which in turn ruined the teeth next to them wisdom teeth were removed one at a time as I only would do when the pain was so bad I couldn't handle any longer the last wisdom teeth or dentist process was more than 9 years ago and so it's taken 9 plus years for five teeth to ground down to the gums line I could not get the teeth removed because they said I have high blood pressure I tried to explain that high blood pressure would probably be induced from the amount of pain that I was in that they would not do anything for me for so I went home and just said I'm going to forget about it now I've heard studies and statements of people having bad teeth and dying from it so this brings into extra the I don't understand how I could be exempt from all of this I've never had a natural immunity that I know of because I've been sick many times throughout my life I'm texting this because maybe you have some idea you can give me of why or what or because technically this should have been worse than the last time I was sick according to everything I've heard and read and watched I'm really interested in having some kind of response being that you're a doctor and I'm not of course I just study a little bit of everything it would be greatly appreciated

  17. For most people on the planet Natural Immunity is always the best, then it decreases from there.
    Oddity patients that are a rarity compared to the world population, may not have a natural immunity that can fight diseases on its own, especially viruses.

  18. I have known people who have been reinfected as soon as 1-3 months from their initial infection.

    In Singapore where I am living in, the reinfection rate during the BA4/5 , XBB wave was close to 25%. The good thing is that reinfection is no worse than the initial infection.

    Singapore is a good case study because of the very high immunity and infection rate.

  19. Isnt it expected that if you were infected and didnt have a severe reaction, that a secord or more infection would have a similar effect? My question is, do re-infections lead to the same or less severe reactions? or what % of re-infections lead to worse outcomes, even if only slightly worse? In other words will outcomes gradually get worse or is there no indication that it gets worse or better and is roughly the same. I am not saying one way or another, I just want to understand better the outcomes being seen and reported as re-infeections occur.

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